Timeline and History Overview
- 500 - First Nations peoples begin to settle in Canada.
- 1000 - Viking Leif Ericson reaches the coastline of Newfoundland.
- 1497 - Italian explorer John Cabot visits Newfoundland.
- 1534 - French explorer Jacques Cartier maps the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River. He claims the region for France.
- 1600s - The French establish the fur trade in Canada.
- 1604 - A fur trade monopoly was granted to Pierre de Monts.
- 1608 - Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec City which becomes the capital of New France.
- 1609 - Samuel de Champlain discovers Lake Champlain.
- 1642 - The city of Montreal is founded.
- 1670 - The Hudson's Bay Company is established.
- 1688 - King William's War is fought between New France and New England.
- 1713 - The British gain control of much of Eastern Canada under the Treaty of Utrecht.
- 1755 - The British expel the Acadians from their lands.
- 1759 - The British occupy Quebec City in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
- 1763 - The French lose the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War) to the British. The British gain control of all the French lands in Canada as a result.
- 1775 - The invasion of the Continental Army of America is stopped at the Battle of Quebec.
- 1783 - The Treaty of Paris establishes official borders between the United States and Canada.
- 1784 - The colony of New Brunswick is established.
- 1791 - Quebec is divided into Upper Canada (today's Ontario) and Lower Canada (today's Quebec).
- 1812 - The War of 1812 occurs between the British and the United States. American forces attempt to invade Canada.
- 1818 - The 49th parallel is determined as the border between much of the U.S. and Canada.
- 1837 - Rebellions occur throughout Canada against the British government.
- 1838 - The Durham Report is issued which recommends that Upper and Lower Canada be united.
- 1840 - Upper and Lower Canada were merged into a single colony by the Act of Union.
- 1846 - The border between the United States and Canada in the west is decided by the Oregon Treaty.
- 1867 - The Dominion of Canada is formed. It includes four provinces including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario.
- 1870 - The province of Manitoba joins Canada.
- 1871 - British Columbia becomes the sixth province of Canada.
- 1873 - The North-West Mounted Police are established. They will become the Canadian Mounted Police.
- 1896 - Gold is discovered in the Yukon. The Klondike Gold Rush occurs as thousands of prospectors move to Canada to find gold.
- 1905 - Saskatchewan and Alberta become provinces.
- 1914 - World War I begins. Canada fights on the side of the Allies.
- 1918 - Canadian fighter pilot Roy Brown shoots down the famous German pilot the Red Baron.
- 1918 - Women gain the right to vote in Canada except for Quebec.
- 1920 - Canada joins the League of Nations.
- 1922 - The first insulin shot for diabetes is given in Toronto. It is developed by Canadian scientists Dr. Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod.
- 1933 - Unemployment from the Great Depression hits 27%.
- 1939 - World War II begins. Canada fights on the side of the Allies. Over 1 million Canadians serve the armed forces during the war.
- 1940 - Women gain the right to vote in Quebec.
- 1949 - Canada joins NATO.
- 1959 - The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway allowing ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean.
- 1965 - Canada adopts the current flag with the red maple leaf.
- 1968 - Pierre Trudeau is first elected as prime minister.
- 1976 - The CN Tower opens in Toronto.
- 1982 - The Canada Act is passed by the British Parliament giving all remaining legal powers to Canada. A new constitution is adopted.
- 1989 - A free trade agreement is established with the United States.
- 1995 - Quebec narrowly rejects independence.
- 2003 - Canada decides not to join in the war in Iraq.
- 2010 - Vancouver hosts the Winter Olympics.
- 2011 - Canada withdraws from the Kyoto Protocol for reducing greenhouse gasses.
Samuel de Champlain
Toronto and the CN Tower
Montreal at Night
Canada was originally settled by the First Nation people and the Intuit many thousands of years ago. Europeans arrived briefly in 1000 AD, but didn't return until 1497 when John Cabot explored the Atlantic Coast for Great Britain. Later explorers from other countries would arrive including Jacques Cartier from France who explored the St. Lawrence River and surrounding areas. The first permanent settlements were French. Led by Samuel de Champlain, the French established Port Royal and Quebec City in the early 1600s.
After the Seven Years War most of Canada became part of the British Empire. In 1840, the Act of Union created the United Province of Canada. Canada continued to expand and in 1867 was officially proclaimed the Canadian Confederation. There were four provinces in the Confederation including Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Ontario. Soon British Columbia, Rupert's Land, and the Northwest Territory all became part of Canada. Britain, however, still maintained control over Canada's foreign affairs. In 1831, through the Statute of Westminster, Canada became a fully independent nation.
Canada is a large geographic country that is rich in natural resources. Canadians hope to develop their natural resources and energy sources while still protecting the environment.
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History >> Geography >> North America >> Canada