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The Cold War

Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil war took place over a long period of time between 1927 and 1950. The war was interrupted when Japan invaded China in 1936 and by World War II. The war was fought between the nationalist government of China, also called the Kuomintang (KMT), and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

Dates: 1927-1936, 1945 - 1950

Leaders

The Kuomintang was founded by Sun Yat-sen. The group was led by Chiang Kai-shek throughout the civil war. Important generals included Bai Chongxi and Chen Cheng.

The Communist Party of China, or CPC, was led by Mao Zedong. Other important leaders included second in command Zhou Enlai and generals Zhu De and Peng Dehuai.

Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalists Party
Chiang Kai-shek by Unknown

Before the War

After the Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1911 there was a vacuum of power in China. Two major parties formed, the nationalist Kuomintang Party and the Communist Party (CPC). Some areas of the country were controlled by warlords. The Kuomintang and the CPC united for a time. They wanted to unify China. They both received help from the Soviet Union. Although they were somewhat united, they continued to have an internal rivalry between the two major parties.

The Civil War Begins

In 1927 the rivalry became a war. Chiang Kai-shek of the Kuomintang decided to get rid of the CPC. The Kuomintang killed and arrested many of the CPC leaders in what is today called the Shanghai Massacre. Mao Zedong of the CPC led an uprising against the Kuomintang called the Autumn Harvest Uprising. The uprising failed, but the civil war had begun.

Ten Years Civil War

Over the next ten years, from 1927 to 1936 the two sides fought. Mao Zedong led peasants and common people in uprisings against the Kuomintang. At the same time Chiang Kai-shek tried to put down the uprisings and eliminate Mao and the CPC Army.

The Long March

In 1934, Mao and the CPC army had to retreat from the Kuomintang. They went on a series of long marches that lasted an entire year, from October of 1934 to October of 1935. They traveled around 7,000 miles. They began the Long March at Jiangxi province in south China and finally stopped at the Shaanxi province of northern China. Out of around 80,000 soldiers that began the march, only 8,000 or so made it to the end.

Soldiers at the end of the Long March
Long March Survivors by Unknown

World War II

When the Japanese invaded Japan in 1937, the two sides once again united in order to fight the Japanese. This continued throughout World War II. However, the two sides still hated each other.

The Civil War Renewed

After the end of World War II in 1945, the two sides resumed their civil war. With American support, Chiang Kai-shek moved his soldiers to the major cities of China. However, the CPC was heavily funded by the Soviet Union and quickly gained support in the rural areas.

The CPC launched an assault in Northern China where the Soviets had control. The Soviets helped them by letting them have the weapons left by the Japanese. For the first few years the United States tried to broker a peace between the two sides where the country would be split. However, neither side was willing to give in.

The End of the Fighting

By 1948 the CPC was gaining momentum. They continued to take nationalist cities and, with each victory, they were gaining support within the population of China. In October of 1949, the CPC captured Beijing. They declared victory and said that China was now under the rule of the People's Republic of China. The nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan where they established their own government called the Republic of China.

Facts About the Chinese Civil War Take a ten question quiz about this page.

To learn more about the Cold War:

Back to the Cold War summary page.

Overview Major Events Wars People of the Cold War

Western Leaders Communist Leaders
Works Cited

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