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History >> US Geography >> US State History

Ohio

State History

People have lived in the land of Ohio for thousands of years. Early cultures were the Mound Building Cultures such as the Hopewell and the Adena peoples. These peoples disappeared around 1000 AD and were replaced by new cultures including the Fort Ancient people and the Whittlesey.

Welcome to Ohio Sign
Ohio Welcome Sign by ErgoSum88


Native Americans

In the 1600s the Iroquois Indians moved into the land in order to hunt for beaver furs. Many of the existing tribes were pushed out of the region. However, due to diseases brought by Europeans, many of the Iroquois were wiped out. They were later replaced by tribes from the east such as the Delaware, the Shawnee, and the Miami.

Europeans Arrive

The first European to arrive in Ohio was French explorer Robert de La Salle in 1669. He claimed the land for the French. Soon the French had established trading posts in order to capitalize on the valuable fur trade in the region. They built several forts including Fort Miami in 1680 and Fort Sandusky in 1750.

In the early 1700s, British colonists from the east coast began to move into the area. They were looking for new land to settle and wanted a part of the fur trade. Soon the British and the French were competing for the fur trade, which eventually led to war.

French and Indian War

The war between the French and British lasted from 1754 to 1763. It is called the French and Indian War. Different Native American tribes allied with different sides of the war. The Ohio region was the site of many battles and bloodshed. George Washington fought on the side of the British in Ohio at the Battle of Fort Necessity. The British eventually won the war and took over the Ohio region in 1763.

Northwest Territory

When the Revolutionary War ended in 1783, Ohio became part of the United States. A few years later, in 1787, the United States created the Northwest Territory. This territory was a large area of frontier land that included such future states as Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.

Becoming a State

In 1788, General Rufus Putnam led a number of settlers into Ohio and established Marietta as the first permanent settlement. Soon, many more settlers from the United States moved into the land. The population grew until, in 1803, Ohio was admitted into the Union as the 17th state. The first capital was in Chillicothe. In 1816, Columbus became the permanent capital.


Farm in Ohio
Ohio Farm by tpsdave

1800s

Much of the early 1800s was marked by battles and wars in Ohio. First, there was a rebellion among the Native Americans led by Shawnee chief Tecumseh. He believed that the land had been taken unfairly from his people. Soon after Tecumseh's forces were defeated, Ohio became the battleground for some of the fighting with the British in the War of 1812.

Civil War

Ohio fought on the side of the Union during the Civil War. It was a "free state" that had outlawed slavery. Many slaves had escaped to Ohio through the Underground Railroad prior to the start of the war. Although few battles occurred in the state, many Ohio men fought for the Union army during the war. Some of the Union's most senior military leaders, such as Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman, were from Ohio.

Many Presidents

Over the years, seven presidents of the United States have been born in Ohio. This is second only to Virginia. The presidents born in Ohio include James Garfield, Ulysses S. Grant, Warren G. Harding, Benjamin Harrison, Rutherford B. Hayes, William McKinley, and William Howard Taft.


The city of Cleveland, Ohio today
Cleveland, Ohio by Lovleet

Timeline More US State History:

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
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Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
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Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
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New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
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Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming


Works Cited

History >> US Geography >> US State History





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