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Kids Math
Glossary and Terms: Probability and Statistics
Average - The average is a number that is one way to find the typical value of a set of numbers. You find the average by adding up all the numbers and then dividing the total by the number of numbers in the set.
Example:
To find the average of the data set (1, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 8)
Add all the values together 1+3+3+4+4+5+8 = 28
Then divide by the total number of values 28 ÷ 7 = 4
The average value is 4.
Correlation - A measurement of how closely related two variables are.
Dependent event - Events are dependent if the occurrence of either event affects the probability of the occurrence of the other event. In other words, one event depends on the other.
Event - A collection of outcomes from an experiment.
Extrapolate - Extrapolation is a way to estimate values beyond the known data. You can use patterns and graphs to determine other possible data points that were not actually measured.
Frequency - The frequency is how often an event occurs during a specific amount of time.
Interpolate - Interpolation is a way to estimate data. When you interpolate you estimate the data between two known points on a graph. This can be done by drawing a curve or line between the two points.
Interval - The set of numbers between two other numbers in a data set. It often refers to a period of time between two events.
Mean - The mean is the same as the average. It is a way of determining the typical value of a data set. The mean is found by adding up all the numbers and then dividing them by the total number of numbers. See average above for an example.
Median - The median is the halfway point in a set of numbers. It can be different from the mean or average. If you line up the numbers in a data set from least to greatest, the median would be the middle number.
Example: The median of the data set (2, 3, 7, 12, 45) is 7.
Mode - The mode is the number that occurs the most often in a data set.
Example: The mode of the data set (2, 2, 7, 8, 12, 7, 2, 14) is 2.
Outcome - The result of an experiment.
Percent - A percent is a special type of fraction where the denominator is 100. It can be written using the % sign.
Example: 50%, this is the same as ½ or 50/100
Probability - The probability is the chance that an event will or will not occur.
Random - If something is random, then all possible events have an equal chance of occurring.
Range - The range is the difference between the largest number and the smallest number in a data set.
Example: The range of the data set (2, 2, 7, 8, 12, 7, 2, 14) is 14 -2 = 12.
Ratio - A ratio is a comparison of two numbers. It can be written a few different ways.
Example: The following are all a way to write the same ratio: 1/2 , 1:2, 1 of 2
Slope - A number that indicates the incline or steepness of a line on a graph. Slope equals the "rise" over the "run" on a graph. This can also be written as the change in y over the change in x.
Example: If two points on a line are (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), then the slope = (y2 - y1) ÷ (x2-x1).
Statistics - Statistics are a set of data and numbers that are collected about a specific event or subject.