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World War II

Japanese Internment Camps

After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor the United States declared war on Japan and entered World War II. Not long after the attack, on February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed an executive order that allowed the military to force people of Japanese ancestry into internment camps. Around 120,000 Japanese-Americans were sent to the camps.

Dust Storm at relocation center
Dust storm at Manzanar War Relocation Center
Source: National Archives

What were internment camps?

Internment camps were sort of like prisons. People were forced to move into an area that was surrounded by barbed wire. They were not allowed to leave.

Why did they make the camps?

The camps were made because people became paranoid that Japanese-Americans would help Japan against the United States after the Pearl Harbor attack. They were scared that they would sabotage American interests. However, this fear was not founded on any hard evidence. The people were put in the camps based only on their race. They had not done anything wrong.

Who were sent to the internment camps?

It is estimated that around 120,000 Japanese-Americans were sent to ten camps spread out around the Western United States. Most of them were from west coast states like California. They were divided into three groups including the Issei (people who had immigrated from Japan), the Nisei (people whose parents were from Japan, but they were born in the U.S.), and the Sansei (third generation Japanese-Americans).

Young girl going to interment camp
An evacuee with family belongings
en route to an "assembly center"

Source: National Archives
Were there children in the camps?

Yes. Entire families were rounded up and sent to the camps. Around a third of the people in the camps were school aged children. Schools were set up in the camps for the children, but they were very crowded and lacked materials like books and desks.

What was it like in the camps?

Life in the camps wasn't very fun. Each family typically had a single room in tarpaper barracks. They ate bland food in large mess halls and had to share bathrooms with other families. They had little freedom.

Were Germans and Italians (the other members of the Axis Powers) sent to camps?

Yes, but not at the same scale. Around 12,000 Germans and Italians were sent to internment camps in the United States. Most of these people were German or Italian citizens who were in the U.S. at the start of World War II.

The Internment Ends

The interment finally ended in January of 1945. Many of these families had been in the camps for over two years. Many of them lost their homes, farms, and other property while they were in the camps. They had to rebuild their lives.

The Government Apologizes

In 1988, the U.S. government apologized for the internment camps. President Ronald Reagan signed a law that gave each of the survivors $20,000 in reparations. He also sent each survivor a signed apology.

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  • Learn More about World War II:

    Overview:
    World War II Timeline
    Allied Powers and Leaders
    Axis Powers and Leaders
    Causes of WW2
    War in Europe
    War in the Pacific
    After the War

    Battles:
    Battle of Britain
    Battle of the Atlantic
    Pearl Harbor
    Battle of Stalingrad
    D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)
    Battle of the Bulge
    Battle of Berlin
    Battle of Midway
    Battle of Guadalcanal
    Battle of Iwo Jima

    Events:
    The Holocaust
    Japanese Internment Camps
    Bataan Death March
    Fireside Chats
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Atomic Bomb)
    War Crimes Trials
    Recovery and the Marshall Plan
    Leaders:
    Winston Churchill
    Charles de Gaulle
    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Harry S. Truman
    Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Douglas MacArthur
    George Patton
    Adolf Hitler
    Joseph Stalin
    Benito Mussolini
    Hirohito
    Anne Frank
    Eleanor Roosevelt

    Other:
    The US Home Front
    Women of World War II
    African Americans in WW2
    Spies and Secret Agents
    Aircraft
    Aircraft Carriers
    Technology
    World War II Glossary and Terms

    Works Cited

    History >> World War 2 for Kids





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