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History >> World War 2 for Kids

World War II

Aircraft Carriers

In World War I the most powerful ship in the navy was a large battleship called the dreadnought. This changed in World War II, however, with the invention of the aircraft carrier. By the end of World War II, the aircraft carrier became the most feared and important part of any country's navy.


USS Enterprise
Source: US Navy

Why were aircraft carriers so important?

Aircraft carriers were like floating islands. They allowed for planes to take off and land from anywhere in the ocean. This changed the way battles were fought forever. Cities that were once considered safe from air attack were now vulnerable.

Aircraft carriers also allowed planes to be launched from a distance to attack other warships. They could drop torpedoes into the water or dive from up high to drop bombs directly on a warship's deck. Aircraft could also be used to spot enemy ships from far away.

Japanese Aircraft Carrier Akagi
Source: Kure Maritime Museum
How big were they?

Aircraft carriers were huge. The largest of them in World War II were around 800 feet long, 90 feet wide, and carried around 100 planes. Thousands of sailors were needed to crew these large ships and to keep all the planes in order.

The top of the ship was a large flat area that acted as the runway and landing strip for the planes. In order to keep the deck clear for take offs and landings, many of the planes were stored below the deck and would be brought up by an elevator.

How did the planes land and take off?

Because the planes only had a short distance to take off, they needed help to get up to the speed needed to take off. The aircraft carrier had a catapult that would slingshot the plane, giving it the boost of speed needed to get airborne before it hit the ocean.

Landing on an aircraft carrier was even more difficult. Each plane would have a tailhook installed at the end of the plane. When landing, the hook would catch on to a wire on the landing strip. This wire would help the plane to slow down and land on the short runway without running right off the end of the ship. Pilots had to be very skilled and specially trained to make this kind of difficult landing.

Deck of an aircraft carrier
USS Enterprise in battle
Source: National Archives

Type of Planes on Aircraft Carriers

Most aircraft carriers in World War II carried three types of planes. Are aircraft carriers still used today?

Yes, there are still around 20 active aircraft carriers in world today (2014). The United States has the most carriers by far with 10.

Interesting Facts about the Aircraft Carriers of WW2 Activities

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  • Learn More about World War II:

    Overview:
    World War II Timeline
    Allied Powers and Leaders
    Axis Powers and Leaders
    Causes of WW2
    War in Europe
    War in the Pacific
    After the War

    Battles:
    Battle of Britain
    Battle of the Atlantic
    Pearl Harbor
    Battle of Stalingrad
    D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)
    Battle of the Bulge
    Battle of Berlin
    Battle of Midway
    Battle of Guadalcanal
    Battle of Iwo Jima

    Events:
    The Holocaust
    Japanese Internment Camps
    Bataan Death March
    Fireside Chats
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Atomic Bomb)
    War Crimes Trials
    Recovery and the Marshall Plan
    Leaders:
    Winston Churchill
    Charles de Gaulle
    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Harry S. Truman
    Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Douglas MacArthur
    George Patton
    Adolf Hitler
    Joseph Stalin
    Benito Mussolini
    Hirohito
    Anne Frank
    Eleanor Roosevelt

    Other:
    The US Home Front
    Women of World War II
    African Americans in WW2
    Spies and Secret Agents
    Aircraft
    Aircraft Carriers
    Technology
    World War II Glossary and Terms

    Works Cited

    History >> World War 2 for Kids





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