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Early Islamic World


History for Kids >> Early Islamic World

570 - Muhammad is born in the city of Mecca.

610 - The religion of Islam begins when Muhammad receives the first revelations of the Quran.

622 - Muhammad and his followers move to Medina to escape persecution in Mecca. This migration becomes known as the "Hijrah" and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

630 - Muhammad returns to Mecca and gains control of the city. Mecca becomes the center of the Islamic world.

632 - Muhammad dies and Abu Bakr succeeds Muhammad as leader of the Islam faith. He is the first of the four "Rightly Guided" Caliphs. This also marks the beginning of the Rashidun Caliphate.

634 - Umar becomes the second Caliph. The Islamic Empire expands during his rule to include much of the Middle East including Iraq, Egypt, Syria, and part of North Africa.

644 - Uthman becomes the third Caliph. He will create the standardized version of the Quran.

656 - Ali bin Talib becomes the fourth Caliph.

661 to 750 - The Umayyad Caliphate takes control after Ali is assassinated. They move the capital city to Damascus.

680 - Hussein, the son of Ali, is killed at Karbala.

692 - The Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem.

711 - Muslims enter Spain from Morocco. They will eventually gain control of most of the Iberian Peninsula.

732 - The Islamic army pushes into France until they are defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.

750 to 1258 - The Abbasid Caliphate takes control and builds a new capital city called Baghdad. The Islamic Empire experiences a period of scientific and artistic achievement that will later be called the Golden Age of Islam.

780 - Mathematician and scientist al-Khwarizmi is born. He is known as the "Father of Algebra."

972 - Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt is founded.

1025 - Ibn Sina completes his encyclopedia of medicine called The Canon of Medicine. It will become the standard medical textbook throughout Europe and the Middle East for hundreds of years.

1048 - Famous poet and scientist Omar Khayyam is born.

1099 - Christian armies recapture Jerusalem during the First Crusade.

1187 - Saladin retakes the city of Jerusalem.

1258 - The Mongol army sacks the city of Baghdad destroying much of the city and killing the Caliph.

1261 to 1517 - The Abbasid Caliphate establishes the Caliphate in Cairo, Egypt. They have religious authority, but the Mamluks hold the military and political power.

1325 - Famous Muslim traveler Ibn Battuta begins his travels.

1453 - The Ottomans take the city of Constantinople bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire.

1492 - After being pushed back for centuries, the last Islamic stronghold in Spain is defeated at Granada.

1517 to 1924 - The Ottoman Empire conquers Egypt and claims the Caliphate.

1526 - The Mughal Empire is established in India.

1529 - The Ottoman Empire is defeated at the Siege of Vienna stopping the advance of the Ottomans into Europe.

1653 - The Taj Mahal, a tomb for the wife of the Mughal Emperor, is completed in India.

1924 - The Caliphate is abolished by Mustafa Ataturk, the first President of Turkey.

More on the Early Islamic World:

Timeline and Events
Timeline of the Islamic Empire
First Four Caliphs
Umayyad Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
Ottoman Empire

Scholars and Scientists
Ibn Battuta
Suleiman the Magnificent
Daily Life
Trade and Commerce
Science and Technology
Calendar and Festivals

Islamic Spain
Islam in North Africa
Important Cities
Glossary and Terms

Works Cited

History for Kids >> Early Islamic World

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