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Geography >> Europe >> Germany History and Timeline


Capital: Berlin

Population: 83,517,045

The Geography of Germany

Borders: Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, North Sea, Baltic Sea

Country of Germany Map
Total Size: 357,021 square km

Size Comparison: slightly smaller than Montana

Geographical Coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

World Region or Continent: Europe

General Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Geographical Low Point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m

Geographical High Point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

Major Cities: BERLIN (capital) 3.438 million; Hamburg 1.786 million; Munich 1.349 million; Cologne 1.001 million (2009), Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Dusseldorf

Major Landforms: Alps, North European Plain, Rhine Valley, Ore Mountains, Palatine Forest, Vogelsberg Mountains, the Spreewald, Black Forest

Major Bodies of Water: Rhine River, Danube River, Elbe River, Main River, Saale River, Muritz Lake, Lake Constance, North Sea, Baltic Sea

Famous Places: Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Berlin Wall, Reichstag building, Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria, Cologne Cathedral, Rugen Cliffs, Romantic Rhine, Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady in Dresden), Oktoberfest in Munich, Heidelberg Old City, the Black Forest

Brandenburg Gate

Economy of Germany

Major Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Agricultural Products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry

Natural Resources: coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

Major Exports: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles

Major Imports: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals

Currency: euro (EUR)

National GDP: $3,114,000,000,000

Government of Germany

Type of Government: federal republic

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991.

Divisions: Germany is divided into sixteen states. See the map below for the location and names of the states. The largest states by population are North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, and Braden-Wurttemberg. Some of the states are city-states such as Berlin and Hamburg.
  1. Baden-Wurttemberg
  2. Bavaria
  3. Berlin
  4. Brandenburg
  5. Bremen
  6. Hamburg
  7. Hesse
  8. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
  9. Lower Saxony
  10. North Rhine-Westphalia
  11. Rhineland-Palatinate
  12. Saarland
  13. Saxony
  14. Saxony-Anhalt
  15. Schleswig-Holstein
  16. Thuringia
National Anthem or Song: Lied der Deutschen (Song of the Germans)

National Symbols:
Country of Germany Flag
Description of flag: The German flag was adopted on May 23, 1949. It has three equally wide horizontal stripes of black (top), red (middle), and gold (bottom). The black represents determination, the red represents bravery and strength, the gold represents generosity.

National Holiday: Unity Day, 3 October (1990)

Other Holidays: New Years' Day (January 1), Good Friday, Labor Day (May 1), Ascension Day, Whit Monday, German Unity Day (October 3), Christmas Day (December 25), Boxing Day (December 26), Oktoberfest is a festival held in Bavaria that lasts 16 days from late September to the first weekend in October.

The People of Germany

Languages Spoken: German

Nationality: German(s)

Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%

Origin of the name Germany: The name "Germany" comes from the Latin word Germania. It was first used by the Gauls and then later by the Romans and Julius Caesar. The Germans call their country Deutschland.

Famous People:

Geography >> Europe >> Germany History and Timeline

** Source for population (2019 est.) is United Nations. GDP (2011 est.) is CIA World Factbook.

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