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Geography >> Asia >> India History and Timeline


Capital: New Delhi

Population: 1,366,417,754

The Geography of India

Borders: China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indian Ocean

Country of India Map
Total Size: 3,287,590 square km

Size Comparison: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Geographical Coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E

World Region or Continent: Asia

General Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Geographical Low Point: Indian Ocean 0 m

Geographical High Point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Major Cities: NEW DELHI (capital) 21.72 million; Mumbai 19.695 million; Kolkata 15.294 million; Chennai 7.416 million; Bangalore 7.079 million (2009)

Major Landforms: Himalayan Mountain Range, Punjab Plain,Thar Desert, Chin Hills, Khasi Hills, Deccan Plateau, Mount Kangchenjunga, Coastal Plains

Major Bodies of Water: Ganges River, Brahmaputra River, Godavari River, Wular Lake, Chilika Lake, Loktak Lake, Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, Laccadive Sea, Indian Ocean

Taj Majal

Famous Places: Taj Majal, India Gate, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid, Qutub Minar, Mysore Palace, Ajanta Caves, The Red Fort, Ganges River, Lake Palace, Virupaksha Temple, Goa beaches, Kanha National Park, Golden Temple in Amritsar

Economy of India

Major Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software

Agricultural Products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish

Natural Resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

Major Exports: textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures

Major Imports: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals

Currency: Indian rupee (INR)

National GDP: $4,421,000,000,000

Government of India

Type of Government: federal republic

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

Divisions: India is divided up into 29 states and 7 union territories. The largest of the Indian states by population are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Bihar. As of 2011 Uttar Pradesh had a population of around 200 million. The largest states by area are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. The capital city of Delhi is considered a union territory.

National Anthem or Song: Jana-Gana-Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)

National Symbols:
Country of India Flag
Description of flag: The Indian flag, called the Tricolour, was adopted on July 22, 1947. It consists of three horizontal stripes of saffron (top), white (middle), and green (bottom). At the center is a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes called the Ashoka Chakra. The color saffron represents courage and sacrifice, the color white stands for truth and purity, and the color green represents prosperity.

National Holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)

Other Holidays: There are a number of holidays celebrated in India. Which holidays are celebrated depends on the religion and area where a person lives. The three national holidays are Republic Day (January 26), Independence Day (August 15), and Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday (October 2). Other popular holidays and celebrations include Raksha Bandhan, Navratri, Diwali, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Easter, and Christmas (December 25).

The People of India

Languages Spoken: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

Nationality: Indian(s)

Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)

Origin of the name India: The name "India" comes from the Persian word "Indus" for Hindus. The people of India generally refer to their country as Bharat or Hindustan. Bharat is an official name called out in the Indian Constitution.

Mahatma Gandhi
Famous People:

Geography >> Asia >> India History and Timeline

** Source for population (2019 est.) is United Nations. GDP (2011 est.) is CIA World Factbook.

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