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Geography >> Middle East >> Turkey History and Timeline


Capital: Ankara

Population: 83,429,615

The Geography of Turkey

Borders: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea

Country of Turkey Map

Total Size: 780,580 square km

Size Comparison: slightly larger than Texas

Geographical Coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

World Region or Continent: Middle East

General Terrain: high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Geographical Low Point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Geographical High Point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Major Cities: Istanbul 10.378 million; ANKARA (capital) 3.846 million; Izmir 2.679 million; Bursa 1.559 million; Adana 1.339 million (2009)

Major Landforms: Thrace (European portion of Turkey), Anatolia (Asian portion of Turkey), Pontic Mountains, Taurus Mountains, Mount Ararat, Gallipoli peninsula

Major Bodies of Water: Kizilirmak River, Kura River,Tigris River, Euphrates River, Lake Van, Lake Tuz, Lake Beysehir, Aegean Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea

Famous Places: Hagia Sophia, Fairy Chimneys in Cappadocia, Pamukkale, Bodrum Castle, Mount Nemrut, Blue Mosque, Ruins of Ephesus, Theatre of Aspendos, Grand Bazaar in Istanbul, Topkapi Palace, Sultan Ahmed Mosqueg, the Golden Horn

Hagia Sophia

Economy of Turkey

Major Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Agricultural Products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock

Natural Resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Major Exports: apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment

Major Imports: machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment

Currency: Turkish lira (YTL); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005

National GDP: $1,075,000,000,000

Government of Turkey

Type of Government: republican parliamentary democracy

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

Divisions: Turkey is divided up into 81 provinces. The largest of the provinces by population are Istanbul, Ankara, Ismir, and Konya. The largest by area are Konya, Sivas, Ankara, and Erzurum.

National Anthem or Song: Istiklal Marsi (Independence March)

National Symbols:
Country of Turkey Flag
Description of flag: The flag of Turkey was adopted in 1844. It has a red background (field) with a white crescent and a five pointed white star. The crescent represents the Sun and the Moon. The Sun, Moon, and star represent the religious beliefs of the ancient Turks. The star and crescent are also symbols of the Islam religion. The color red has been a major color in Turkish flags for hundreds of years.

National Holiday: Republic Day, 29 October (1923)

Other Holidays: New Years' Day (January 1), National Sovereignty and Children's Day (April 23), Labor and Solidarity Day (May 1), Commemoration of Ataturk and Youth Day (May 19), Republic Day (October 29), Ramadan Feast, Sacrifice Feast

The People of Turkey

Languages Spoken: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian

Nationality: Turk(s)

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Origin of the name Turkey: The name "Turkey" means "land of the Turks." The people of the region have been known as the Turks for hundreds of years.

Famous People:

Geography >> Middle East >> Turkey History and Timeline

** Source for population (2019 est.) is United Nations. GDP (2011 est.) is CIA World Factbook.

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