- 5000 - People begin to farm along the Nile River in Egypt.
- 2950 - Egypt is first united under Menes, the first pharaoh of Egypt.
- 2600 - The first pyramid of Egypt, the Pyramid of Djoser, is constructed.
- 2500 - The Great Pyramid of Giza is built.
- 2000 - The Bantu peoples begin to migrate south into central and southern Africa.
- 1279 - Rameses II becomes pharaoh of Egypt.
- 1070 - The Kingdom of Kush gains its independence from Egypt.
- 814 - The city of Carthage is established by the Phoenician Empire.
- 715 - The Kushites conquer Egypt and will rule until 662 BCE.
- 650 - Carthage becomes independent. It grows into one of the most powerful cities on the Mediterranean Sea.
- 590 - The capital of Kush moves from Napata to Meroe.
- 550 - The Nok peoples begin to forge iron tools and weapons.
- 525 - The Persians conquer Egypt.
- 332 - The Greeks led by Alexander the Great conquer Egypt.
- 264 - Carthage fights the First Punic War against Rome.
- 146 - Carthage is defeated by Rome. Roman forces destroy the city.
- 30 - Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of Egypt, dies. Egypt becomes part of Rome.
- 100 - The Kingdom of Aksum rises to power in Ethiopia.
- 300 - The Ghana Empire begins to rise in power in West Africa. It will rule the region until around 1100 CE.
- 325 - Ezana becomes king of Aksum. The Aksum Empire will reach its peak under his rule.
- 709 - North Africa comes under the control of Arab Muslims.
- 711 - The Moors of North Africa invade and conquer the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.
- 1100 - The city of Great Zimbabwe is founded in Central Africa.
- 1235 - The Empire of Mali is established by Sundiata Keita.
- 1300 - The Kingdom of the Kongo rises to power in Central Africa. It will rule until the 1900s when it is colonized by Portugal.
- 1324 - Mansa Musa, Emperor of Mali, makes his famous pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
- 1464 - The Songhai Empire comes into power in Western Africa under the leadership of Sunni Ali.
- 1493 - Askia Muhammad becomes emperor of the Songhai. He brings Islam to the empire.
- 1497 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama sails around the southern tip of Africa on his way to India.
- 1500s - The Atlantic slave trade begins shipping slaves to the Americas. Around 12 million slaves will be shipped to the Americas over the next 400 years.
- 1585 - The Kingdom of Luba is established in Central Africa.
- 1591 - Invaders from Morocco take control of the Songhai cities of Timbuktu and Gao.
- 1610 - The Mali Empire comes to an end.
- 1652 - The Dutch establish a colony at Cape Town in South Africa.
- 1869 - Construction on the Suez Canal is complete.
- 1889 - The Second Boer War begins in South Africa between the Boers and the British.
- 1962 - Nelson Mandela is arrested and jailed in South Africa.
- 1994 - Apartheid comes to an end in South Africa.
To learn more about Ancient Africa:
History >> Ancient Africa